Saturday, January 11, 2020

Huawei Technologies

Huawei Technologies How is Huawei’s internationalisation endeavour a good success story example for other companies wanting to pursue global growth? Introduction Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. provides telecommunications equipment and solutions to operators in China and internationally. The company’s products include wireless and networking equipment, applications and software, and terminals; smartphones for French users; and metro services platforms, which help operators to build broadband metro area networks. It also offers mobile network, broadband network, IP-based and optical network, and telecom value-added services. Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. has strategic partnerships with IBM, the Hay Group, PwC, FhG, Intel, Texas Instruments, Freescale Semiconductor, Qualcomm, Infineon, Agere Systems, Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, and HP. Huawei Technologies is a Chinese company. It was established in1988 by Ren Zhengfei, a former People’s Liberation Army officer and telecom engineer. Huawei’s headquarters site, of modern and impressive building fittings, is situated in Shenzhen, southern China (Guandong province). In 2006, Huawei Technologies was among the ranks of China’s â€Å"National Champions†, along Haier, Lenovo TCL, and the Wanxiang Group, poised to compete with global leaders in the international market place. Huawei has also been dubbed as the Cisco of China. It is thus a multinational corporation with branch offices in 100 countries which serves over one billion users worldwide. The question is then begged as to why Huawei is so competitive? What were and could be the challenges the Chinese-based company faces? What are the implications of Huawei’s strategy? In this paper I will attempt to analyse Huawei Technologies strategy to internalisation by taking in account the company’s starting point in China, and by setting the stage for the comparison of Huawei’s to that Cisco’s strategy. I will then proceed with some recommendations on what a Chinese company could have done to better prepare for competition in the US telecom industry. And conclude with some remarks on the progress made by Huawei since 2006, when the case study on which the analysis is based was compiled. Company Overview From its very beginnings, the company’s vision has been to become a lighthouse of innovation which would successfully enable it to compete first in its home market, and then proceed with international expansion. When the company was still operating only in China, Huawei’s methodology around its goals, to not be set up in joint ventures with foreign companies, to pursue global cutting-edge technologies, persist on self-development, and expand internationally, largely consisted in extensive investment in research and development (R&D) capabilities, and hiring a highly-qualified workforce from China. Huawei was created almost single-handedly under the strong vision and leadership of Zhingfei. He fostered a unique and rigorous management culture, by building a â€Å"pack-of-wolves enterprise†. He instilled a management philosophy within the company which meant to view competition and market opportunities with a keen smell, react to with an aggressive push and always confront both in unified groups. Under Zhengfei’s lead, who had been successful to create and manage a large relationship network, few other competitors could match, the company had relied on big contract orders from the military to secure a foothold in the telecom network market in its early years. Moreover, extended army and government ties had provided the company with relatively easy access to financing. Huawei was undoubtedly the largest Chinese telecom equipment manufacturer, with annual revenue of US$6. 7 billion in 2005. Market capitalisation was estimated to be up to US$10 billion. In China, Huawei’s major customers included all the big names such as China Telecom, China Mobile, China Netcom and China Unicom. Huawei’s networks in China served over 400 million people communicating across the country, occupied 25% market share in the mobile networks, and supplied 80% of all short messaging services from China mobile. Therefore, Huawei’s strategy to focus on R&D to lead technological advancement, its attention to choose high-calibre and yet inexpensive labour from China, as well as foster a consolidated sense of corporate culture none but confirmed Huawei’s stable, long-term oriented organic growth strategy. The company’s competitive advantage in its home turf had built up to be low-cost engineering, enabling Huawei to compete with large indigenous and foreign competitors. Cisco, Huawei, and the International Market of Telecom Equipment and Services Cisco, which global presence spurred with the enlarging footprint of the internet across the globe in 1991, decided to focus its growth strategy in China by the end of the 1990s. Cisco’s strategy in China consisted in recruiting and training employees to service high-end markets of telecom service providers and enterprise markets. Instead of forming joint ventures with local partners (like most of its international competitors did in China), Cisco opened its own subsidiary in China, Cisco Networking Technology Co. Ltd. to promote education, demonstration and development of network technology. Educational initiatives presented Cisco with an opportunity to develop favourable relations with Chinese authorities and to cultivate new areas of business within China. Moreover, recognising the large, low-cost and skilled labour force in China, Cisco continued its commitment in the country by investing in an R &D centre in Shanghai. Cisco’s CEO plans for the facility were to allow Cisco access to technology and local talent so as to leverage Cisco’s newness to the corporate culture of China and be able for it to buy into the local Chinese local market. Cisco’s goal was by all means to maintain its leadership position in cutting edge technology. While at the same time, Chinese competitors were using their aggressive pricing strategies to expand into the international markets, and were rapidly using their low-cost advantages to move up the value chain. And Huawei was among the Chinese companies that were expected to make further inroads into international markets in the next few years, competing head-to-head with established Western players for the same global accounts. Internationalisation: Phase 1 Having secured a strong foothold in its home market in China, Huawei started to look for diverse sources of growth internationally, in the first half of the 1990s. However, it was able to conclude its first significant international contract only in 2000, in Russia. In order to avoid outright competitive confrontations with well-established Western telecommunication multinationals, Huawei went global by first entering growing markets in developing countries. Considerable contracts extended later on beyond Eastern Europe, in South America (Brazil’s fixed line carrier) and Asia (Thailand’s largest mobile service provider). Huawei’s path toward the matured Western European markets, the company’s next challenge, would not come without tradeoffs. In the early 2000s, Huawei was a new company competing for market share with established global communications technology suppliers. Chinese products were then suffering from a common perception of being cheap and unreliable, forcing Huawei to thus pursue aggressive tactics to win contracts. With 30% lower pricing points than established competitors, a commitment to offer trial periods for its products and hiring local personnel to tailor technologies and services to customers' needs, led the company to win contracts in tough-to-please markets such as France (Neuf Telecom, 2001). The biggest success, however, and the one that signified Huawei’s breakthrough in Europe, was in 2004 when the company was selected by a Dutch mobile operator to build its 3G mobile phone network, by then Huawei’s hallmark capability. Internationalisation: Phase 2 In order to highlight the key points of Huawei’s internationalisation strategy, the case of the company’s entrance in the U. S. calls for an analytical stop. The challenges Huawei faced in the North American market revolve around several axes, but overall the endeavour highlights the general lack of preparation and some strategic blunders which made the company’s top management decide to update Huawei’s strategy and draft one that caters to long term sustainable development. When it opened its first office in Plano, Texas, the company made every effort to blend into the local culture. It shared the building with law offices, realtors and the regional office of the lingerie company Victoria’s Secret. A Texas state flag and an American receptionist welcomed visitors on the ground-floor lobby. Shortly after the US-launch, however, the defect of not having carefully planned for cultural differences eventually surfaced. Chinese employees had a difficult time adapting to the Texas accent and other aspects of the local culture. Huawei executives also realised that Americans had difficulty pronouncing the company’s name. They came up with a working name, Futurei, which although facilitated to a better pronunciation, only confused targeted customers even more, and Huawei’s infant brand came under great shock. In the US telecommunications industry, a mature market where lower prices often are not enough to land a deal, winning customers and contracts would demand for a lot more effort. Phone companies and equipment suppliers had long term ties with their equipment suppliers, customers looked for exceptionally leading-edge technology and a compelling reason to switch. Moreover, trying to switch to a virtually unrecognised brand in the US market meant that telecom service providers – Huawei’s classical customers – would request exhaustive testing of equipment quality and reliability, lasting several months, before committing to buying it; a common procedure for sourcing from an unknown company. Another hurdle Huawei encountered was a lawsuit Cisco launched, only six months after Huawei had set up its subsidiary in the US. Analysts observed that Huawei’s steep discounting of low-end routers [Cisco’s] products in its home turf, the US market, had prompted the lawsuit [of alleged infringement of Cisco’s patents and copyrights]. This was Cisco’s first intellectual property lawsuit despite its huge intellectual portfolio. Huawei ended up by agreeing to withdraw from the market place Quidway routers and other related products. Three years after its US launch, the company was able to land its first contract with a US wireless carrier in 2004, and subsequently securing other contracts with small wireless carriers. Huawei had serious intentions for the U. S. market. Yet cultural risk and Cisco’s buying power in its home turf, led to a substantial delay of results, and thus loss of revenue and opportunity for Huawei. Despite having a powerful and well recognised brand name, when Cisco started its venture into China (in 1998), it began by first building on local labour-skill capabilities and government network to leverage on its inexperience in the Chinese market and thus buy into market sales power among corporate customers. Huawei, on the other hand was literally unknown in the US market. And it was naive enough to assume that American corporate customers would be sufficed with high-quality low-cost equipments from an unknown Chinese company. Or that its organisation was rightly prepared to face global competition as aggressively and in the right way as it had done in China. Cisco’s entry strategy into China was aggressive not because it offered low-cost high quality products, but expensive and exclusive technology, reinforced further via R centres spread across the country. Enterprises in China knew about and trusted Cisco’s product quality nd reliability. The same cannot be said about Huawei’s products. In spite of success in winning deals in developing countries, Huawei could not reach US corporate customers if they would not pass that easily the wall of perception that Chinese products were cheap and merely copied versions of other recognised telecom equipment and software. Recommendation Recommendations, or lessons to be drawn from Huaweiâ₠¬â„¢s experience, would capture the overall need for Chinese companies to acclimate to new surroundings first – just as the foreign companies that entered China did . Acclimatisation, for Huawei could have proceeded by: 1. Improving assessment of risk – economic, political, regulatory, cultural, organisational to avoid cultural and regulatory (the lawsuit) blunders. Huawei could have also better prepared to build a network before out rightly starting to target enterprise and corporate customers. 2. Preparing better for the entry strategy in the US– be it Greenfield, acquisition, merger or alliance. Cisco, to show its commitment for China, announced a US$100 million investment, stirring curiosity and interest among corporate customers and Chinese authorities. Huawei went into the US â€Å"quietly† opening a branch office! 3. Developing global talent – R investment and international top managers with a global experience and extended local market knowledge, in order to enhance buying power into the local market. 4. Creating a global brand – to be accepted in the market place by using local industrial public relations companies can facilitate brand recognition in the initial stages. 5. Assessing and redesigning organisation and management style to one that caters four dimensions: †¢co-orientation, the temporal dimension – being able to balance between short-term results for survival and long-term performance for sustainable profit growth; †¢co-competence, the relationship dimension – persist on the dual possession of both transactional and relational competence; †¢co-opetition – the capability to win market share through simultaneous competition and cooperation for reasons that range from brand name strengthening and market share growth; o be agile and flexible to re-adjust to shocks efficiently, and flexible enough to re-balance short-term results with long-term performance, and †¢co-evolution – the pursuit of organisational adaptation to and proactive influence on the external environment facing a firm [Huawei] Concluding Analysis and Discussion The future of business is in its course to re-establishing itself in a [somewhat] changed order. The recent financial crisis has certainly tested the best and the worst of yesteryear strategies and management styles. Thanks also to a revived wave of globalisation companies are in the quest for profit, at a time when there are possibilities – probabilities – and uncertainty. The US market continues indeed to be a litmus test of endurance for non-American companies . Luckily, Huawei had sufficient financial cushion and top management agility to learn quickly and be able to modify its corporate business model strategy to fit the demands of its targeted customers – corporate clients. â€Å"Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. announced it will unveil a new mobile broadband solution †¦ at Mobile World Congress 2010. This solution will accommodate the tremendous increase in mobile broadband traffic, reduce the per-bit cost by over 95%, and make mobile broadband services more profitable for operators worldwide. Today, mobile broadband services are growing exponentially, but operators have not yet been able to convert this into significant revenue streams. Huawei estimates that global data traffic on mobile broadband networks will grow 1,000 times over the next decade, from the current 85 million Giga-bytes per month in 2009. As the number of mobile broadband users continues to climb, subscribers will increasingly look for low tariffs with unlimited, high-speed access and abundant mobile broadband service, while operators will need network capabilities that allow them to accommodate the expansion pressures of mobile broadband network and profitable operation mode. Huawei would seem to be â€Å"swimming† in a blue ocean now because it has been able to grow in scale and revenue while keeping a low cost structure. The R investment and ability to simultaneously fill a gap in telecom infrastructure by putting forward a unique value proposition to telecom end user customers and telecom serv ices suppliers. Mobile broadband users, growing exponentionally in numbers, are now being offered the possibility of low tariffs for unlimited, high-speed access and abundant broadband services. In turn, operators will need network capabilities that allow them to accommodate these expansion pressures on the mobile broadband network and retain profit margins. The case of Huawei Technologies certainly reflects a good example of success story in dealing with all the above issues. Chinese-based companies planning to become global may well benchmark Huawei’s management structure and organisation in turning around the focus from high-tech products to customer-centric high-tech products and services, under an internationally accepted brand label. Huawei’s top management certainly took a step back after the initial limping performance in the U. S. It now â€Å"believes that cooperating with customers, suppliers and leading players in the industry to face challenges together through a win-win strategy is essential in today's business world† . Huawei has formed numerous partnerships [†¦ ] with leading multinationals such as ADI, Agere, Altera, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Oracle, SUN, TI and Xilinx to improve the time to market of [†¦ ] products, and to incorporate the latest technologies and best management practices into [the] company. [Such] will enhance [its] position [and brand image] in key international markets, [†¦ ] and improve [its] response speed and service advantages in [the] supply chain† . As of 2010, Huawei has 87,502 employees, of whom 43% are dedicated to R&D. Huawei’s most recently reported sales counted at US$18. 33 billion, a 75% increase from the 2006 sales, and with US$1. 15 in net profit. In 2009, it was named the world's top patent seeker, it was the first Chinese company to head the United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) list, its contract orders rose 46% to US$23. 3 billion (75% of which came from overseas), overtook Alcatel-Lucent to become world's No. 3 mobile network gear maker, and during the third quarter of 2009, Huawei passed Nokia Siemens Networks for the No. 2 position in the global mobile infrastructure equipment (according to research firm Dell'Oro)—a sign of the changing fortunes of the two vendors . Huawei’s change in the strategy style is noticeable right at its formulation of the new vision – it is now â€Å"to enrich life through communication†. The company continues to maintain a leading competitive position in the international industry of telecom technology and services, and only these days was elected 5th most innovative company in the World â€Å"behind only Facebook, Amazon, Apple, and Google† ! ________________________________________ Bibliography: Business Week, retrieved 2 March 2010 from (http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp? privcapId=1259829) Zeng, M. and Williamson, P. (2003)  « The Hidden Dragons  », Haward Business Review, October. Quoted in The Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Ref 06/300C Huawei Technologies Corporate Website – http://www. huawei. com/corporate_information/global_operations. do Huawei Technologies Annual Report 2009 Farhoomand, A. , The Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, â€Å"Huawei: Cisco’s Chinese challenger â€Å", 2006 Chen, J. Giant Rises in the East  », National Post, June 10th 2005, Quoted in T he Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Ref 06/300C The McKinsey Quarterly, Strategy,  « How Chinese companies can succeed abroad†, May 2008. Lou, Y. and Rui, H. â€Å"An ambidexterity Perspective Toward Multinational Enterprises from Emerging Economies†, Academy of Management, November 2009. http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp? privcapId=1259829, Retrieved 2 March 2010. http://www. huawei. com/corporate_information/partnerships. do, Retrieved 2 March 2010. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Huawei http://eon. businesswire. com/portal/site/eon/permalink/? ndmViewId=news_view

Friday, January 3, 2020

All Of Richard Rorty Human Rights And Cultural Relativism

All of Richard Rorty – Human Rights, Rationality and Sentimentality – Fernando Tesà ³n – International Human Rights and Cultural Relativism – and Charles Taylor – A World Consensus on Human Rights? – believe or concede to some degree that the notion of what Taylor defines as descriptive relativism is one that accurately describes the varied realities of individuals in differing cultures; that there exists in the world some measure of diversity of culture. In their respective thought processes that follow from that point, however, the three thinkers diverge considerably. Tesà ³n, for instance, asserts that – while it is certainly prevalent – cultural diversity is not morally relevant. Relying upon the Kantian notion of autonomy, Tesà ³n argues†¦show more content†¦With this assumption, it is unsurprising that he lands on a conclusion of cultural relativism as a morally bankrupt concept – because he approaches it from a heavily skewed stance. Were that assumption necessarily true, then the logic that follows from it would make for a compelling piece. However, Tesà ³n fails to convince of the validity of the assumption that Kantian autonomy need be applied transculturally – and thus fails to convince that culture is not morally relevant. He presents a few arguments to this end, including issues with the universalizability and epistemology of cultural relativism (385-386), but these same flaws apply to the theories he goes on to support. Taylor’s stance of the Kantian autonomy as a cultural notion itself is never satisfactorily addressed, thus the most pressing issue with Tesà ³n’s work is this failure to convince that his preferred form of moral standard – derived from a specific cultural tradition – should be used to evaluate transculturally. Of course applying this form of evaluation to varied cultures will produce the appearance that other cultures – cultures not based upon this metric for measuring morality – will lack some morality, but this is analogous to judging the quality of a rugby club by how many runs they scored during a match or a baseball team by how many tries they scored during a game: the measuring stick is simply incompatible with what is being measured. PutShow MoreRelated Philosophy Essay3726 Words   |  15 Pages Relativism -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The first clear statement of relativism comes with the Sophist Protagoras, as quoted by Plato, quot;The way things appear to me, in that way they exist for me; and the way things appears to you, in that way they exist for youquot; (Theaetetus 152a). Thus, however I see things, that is actually true -- for me. If you see things differently, then that is true -- for you. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Constitution For New Zealand Essay - 1591 Words

â€Å"What should be included or excluded in a written constitution for New Zealand?† Moore (2016) emphasises the statement â€Å"time for a 40-page New Zealand constitution† declared by constitutional law expert and former prime minister, Sir Geoffrey Palmer, in his article on Stuff.co.nz. Palmer stresses that the present constitution is â€Å"dangerously incomplete, obscure, fragmentary and far too flexible† (Hagen, 2016). While there is a huge debate whether New Zealand should have a written constitution or not, it is evident to some that the nation can benefit from forming one. With a precise and complete written constitution, subjects and aspects crucial to New Zealand can be protected efficiently, while simultaneously relishing the importance of existing constitutional acts in governing New Zealand. New Zealand’s resolution to examine the significance of replacing its unwritten constitution with a written one may lead to a better managerial of important constitutional acts by highlighting the differences between both written and unwritten constitutions. According to TheFreeDictionary.com, constitution means fundamental law, either written or unwritten, that explains the nature of a government by clarifying the basic principles which a society must comply with; by describing the organisation of the government and regulation, and limitations on the functions of government bodies; and by specifying the extent and manner of the exercise of its sovereign powers (Farlex, 2003). NewShow MoreRelatedNew Zealand And The Constitution Essay1145 Words   |  5 PagesIn New Zealand we have a constitution therefore ‘person A’ is incorrect as their argument is that we do not have one. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Developmental Impact Of Technology On Today s Society

The Developmental Impact of Technology on Today’s Society Society has become slaves to technology. Our society depends so greatly on technology that we have lost the ability of face to face communication. Nowadays all you see are people with their face stuck in their phones or latest gadgets and being oblivious to the world. The obsession and need to use technology affects every developmental stage. The affect starts at the young age of infancy and continues into childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. It may have a greater effect on one developmental stage over the other, but it is clear the technology effects even the youngest child. A person may not see an infant as being able to be affected by technology but with all the technological advances in today’s world even infants are impacted. Imagine looking around and seeing a cute baby and their mother, but something is different, the baby is occupied by a bright lit touch phone instead of a baby toy and the mother is paying no attention to the infant. This a much more common sight today than it was 15 years ago. Mothers are occupying their infants by handing them their iPhones or android devices instead of playing with them. This is taking away from the infants learning. Parents would rather calm a fussy baby by giving them a phone or tablet rather than actually trying to calm them down. According to Dr. Jim Taylor (2010) â€Å"when children get bored, cranky, or bothersome, their parents immediately give them their iPhone,Show MoreRelatedThe Greatest Challenge For American Higher Education1582 Words   |  7 PagesThe greatest challenge for American higher education today is how to improve the success of developmental education students. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Theories of Socialisation

Question: Evaluate contrasting theories of socialisation with reference to different different types of socialisation (you have to describe the learning and evolutionary theory, also you have to evaluate both theories i.e discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both)? Answer: Introduction Socialization is a name given sociologists to the life long procedure of inheriting and dissemination of the customs, norms and ideology. It is providing the individual the skill to participate in the society. Behavioural and Evolutionary theories of attachment are two contradictory ideas which tells how a child is attached to the primary care giver. It states there are innate and acquired cognitive abilities developed during the life cycle provided by the biological mechanism and the experiences faced.. To explain the process there are so many theories adapted. Of them the important are the learning theory and the evolutionary theory. In the essay the focus is on both the theories their process, advantages and disadvantages. Defining the evolutionary and learning theory Evolutionary theory of socialization is on the nature side which says attachment is biologically innate in a new born (Bereczkei, 2007). It states that the infants cry, smile and laugh as they know they will get a response from the adult. It is biologically inherited and has a critical period of 2.5 years of age. It states infants are more attached to the comforting person who provides protection, support and is basis for future relations. On the contrary the behavioural or the learning theory says it is on the nurture side. It says that attachment is a sequence of the behaviours that are learned from the surrounding environment and they are not at all inborn or innate (Mowere, 2000). It is a learned theory with no critical period and the infants are attached to the sources of food. Concept of evolutionary and learning theory The learning theory is based on the concept of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning means the association of the infant for his/her food with the care giver. The care giver provide comfort and fulfil their needs so they become the attachment figure (Ivan et al, 2006). Classical conditioning has the following factors: Unconditioned stimulus: A stimulus which provokes up a reaction naturally like hunger. Unconditioned response: A response that happens on its own like salivating. Conditioned stimulus: This stimulus pairs with the unconditional stimulus but does not cause a unconditioned response. Conditioned response (CR): It a response that the individual learns. The Operant Conditioning means the new born leanrs to grab the attention from the adults by smiling, crying or laughing. The response given by the care giver or any other one than turns as a base to them. The condition suggest that the attachment is based on the provision of care and is the most with the one who provides the utmost care (Tolman, Richie Kailash, 1990).Evolutionary theory sates the survival is the need for attachment. The infant has innate instinct that in order to survive they need to attach to someone. This attachment is developed during the critical period and is learned once in a life time. The critical period is the amount of time which a particular things take to develop (Bjorklund Pelligrini, 2000). Like a bond with the primary care giver which is mostly mother. It states the humans are born to be social as it is the way of the human species to go on. Like for example parents use high pitch voice to control or to scare their children. This is followed everywher e in the cities to small tribes of the whole world. The evolution theory also has developed some characteristics that are same for the males and the females throughout regardless to their age, ethnic origin, sexual posture etc. Like males are more healthy and females have a patient nature. Advantages and disadvantages of the evolutionary theory The advantages of evolutionary theories are as follows: It gives a brief description about the existence of all the species in the way they are and they tells how they will change in response to the environmental disturbances. It explains the nature along with strong evidences. It deals up with the system, structure, adaptation and change as part of social stratification. It gives all the explanations about the social complexity like integrating the technology in to human live, their perception, the technology effects, the tolerance levels and the beliefs relating to values and norms (Buss, 2008). The disadvantages of the evolutionary theory are as follows: It does not hold any scientific facts. It relies on speculations that have happened in the past years. It also lacks in detail knowledge of the selection pressure that the human race has faced in the past million years. It also does not explain the differences in culture and the differences on the individual basis. Some behaviours are not adaptive. Advantages and disadvantages of the learning theory The advantages of learning theories are as follows: It focuses on the individuals behavioural changes. The concept of association between the individuals is well explained (bower, 1975). The disadvantages of learning theories are as follows: The approaches are reductionist. The behaviour is decreased to simple association between the behaviour and the environment. It neglects the cognitive factors that are necessary for ones behaviour (Seward John, 1970). It also limits the explanation about behaviours as all type of behaviour is not learnt. It argues that anger is behavioural trait that is learned whereas the biological approach says that the hormones like testosterone are responsible for such behaviours. Conclusion At the end it can be said that both the theories have their pros and corns. Both the nature and nurture operate in sequence to influence up the development. They follow a interactive rather than an independent pattern. The aspects and point explained for both of them hold logical and reasonable facts. So, both the theories of attachment are involved for the development of full individual. References Bereczkei T. (2007) Parental impact on development: how proximate factors mediate adaptive plans. In: Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (Eds. R. Dunbar and L. Barrett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 255-272. Bjorklund, D. F., Pelligrini, A. D. (2000). Child development and evolutionary psychology. Child Development, 71, 16871708 Bowrer, G.H. Cognitive psychology: An introduction. In W.K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1975. Buss, D. M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Boston, MA: Pearson Ivan, Zs. And Bereczkei T. (2006) parental bonding, risk-takin behavior and life history. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology 4: 267-275. Mowrer, O.H. On the dual nature of learning -- A re-interpretation of conditioning and problem-solving. Harvard Educational Review, 2000, 17, 102-148. Seward, John P. Conditioning theory. In M.H. Marx (Ed.), Learning: Theories. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970. Tolman, E.C., Ritchie, B.F., Kalish, D. Studies in spatial learning. II Place learning versus response learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1990, 36, 221-226.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Marketing and Long I. Hazel free essay sample

In what ways are Hazel’s customers most likely to judge the quality of her lawn care services? -Though Hazel is new on mowing lawns, she had good reputations that attract many neighbors to switch to her. 2. Hazel is the operations manager of her business. Among her responsibilities are forecasting, inventory management, scheduling, quality assurance, and maintenance. a. What kinds of things would likely require forecasts? -Thing that requires forecasting is when will the lawns grow tall again. . What inventory items does Hazel probably have? Name one inventory decisions she has to make periodically. -She must have lawn mower, is a type of machine that used to cut lawns. This machine is very crucial to her business because this is the most used in her business. c. What scheduling must she do? What things might occur disrupt schedules and cause Hazel to reschedule? -I suggest that scheduling must done day before the service, to avoid cancellation of schedule or any disruption. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing and Long I. Hazel or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Long time reservation might cause disruption because the customers won’t know what will happen in future. For example, I scheduled it on next 3 weeks, suddenly we are out of town it may cause cancellation of the service. d. How importance is quality assurance to Hazel’s business? Explain. -Since Hazel is new to mowing lawns, she must be able to secure quality for neighbors for her customers will stay and ask for her service next time. e. What kind of maintenance must be performed? Hazel must able to explain to the customers when is her next service and when shall the service be done. 3. What are some of the trade-offs that Hazel probably considered relative to: -If I were Hazel I would be probably be concentrating on expanding the business, since after the first year of business the business is going well, I would probably think of new strategies in expanding the business. Launching a website will help also, since internet marketing is one of the major marketing strategy now a days it will probably help expanding the business. 4.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Images of September 11, 2001 †Psychology Essay

The Images of September 11, 2001 – Psychology Essay Free Online Research Papers The Images of September 11, 2001 Psychology Essay On September 11, 2001, two planes crashed into the World Trade Centre killing almost three thousand people. During the catastrophic moments before the twin towers collapsed, William Wik, an assistant director for a financial services company on the 92nd floor of the South Tower, informed his wife that he was not prepared to flee and that had to go back into the burning building to try help the remaining survivors. After the South Tower collapsed, William Wik’s body was found amongst the rubble. The attacks on the Word Trade Centre have perhaps highlighted various instances of human endeavour of which William Wik’s willingness to intervene was one example. But why do some people appear to act so selflessly or courageously in such situations? Why would someone rush into a burning building to try and save its occupants, dive into a river to save a drowning person or help someone that had collapsed in the street? The traditional image of a saviour who goes to the assistance of others with little regard for their safety evokes images of a heroic figure. Someone that is brave, strong, courageous and decisive. It is the image of someone that might charge into a burning building to rescue a child seen crying helplessly in the top floor window as flames engulf the rest of the building. A different but similar image of a savour would be someone in the mould of Mother Theresa – the selfless and altruistic ‘Good Samaritan’ – who instead of walking past a person in need would instead provide appropriate aid and assistance. These images perhaps suggest that those who intervene in such situations possess personal characteristics over and above those typical to the societal norm. However, a number of studies suggest that personality type alone does not determine behaviour. Instead, consideration needs to be given to other factors, particularly situational circumstances when determining the reasons as to why a bystander will intervene. Hartshorne and May (1929) conducted a study to measure the likelihood of children finding stories for hospitalised children, donating money to charity and giving small gifts to need children. They assumed that they were measuring the degree of a person’s ‘altruistic personality type’. Aside from weaknesses in the methodology of the experiences and the lack of consideration of other factors such as social conformity that might have affected the results, the study showed little correlation between children helping in one situation and then helping in another. Later studies by Batson, (1998); Piliavin Charng (1990), suggest that people with high scores on personality tests of altruism are not much more likely to help that those with lower scores. Whilst personality factors may have a bearing, studies have shown that factors other than personality eg. situation pressures, social conformity, can have a considerable bearing on whether a bystander will intervene to help someone in need. A number of studies suggest that there are gender differences in the likelihood and extent of pro-social behaviour. Where the intervention requires a degree of heroism or there is an audience present, it would seem that men are more likely to intervene than women (Eagly Crowly, 1986; Crowley, 1987). Men were more likely to help women, rather than other men, particularly where the woman was attractive. This may be explained in evolutionary terms on the basis that women find heroism an attractive trait in men, an attraction derived from ancestral times when men were required to be courageous to ensure survival. Whilst heroism in dangerous circumstances may decrease the risk of survival chances, it would increase the person’s attractiveness to potential partners and accordingly has remained in the gene pool. Where the intervention required a more nurturant or long-term intervention, more women will help than men (George, Caroll, Kersnick et al 1998, McGuire 1994). This would be consistent with traditional social views as to the gender roles of men being heroic and women being nurturing or caring. Aronson 2005, suggests that cultural evidence suggests the same patterns. Other studies have suggested that there are cultural differences in relation to a bystander inventing to help a victim. Whiting and Whiting (1975) considered the behaviour of young children between the ages of 3 and 10 from six different countries: US, Indian, Japan, Phillipines, Mexico and Kenya. Whiting and Whiting found that on one end of the scale, 100% of children in Kenya were high on empathy, whilst on the end, only 8% of children in the US were altruistic. Eisenberg and Mussen (1989) reviewed several studies and concluded that there were large differences from one culture to another. Eysenk (2000) suggests that industrialised societies such as those in the US place considerable emphasis on competition and personal success, which is likely to reduce the likelihood of co-operation and altruism. Additionally, family structures in non-industrialised cultures are likely to be such that altruistic or helping behaviour is more likely to be fostered or developed to a greater degree. The degree of altruism is also likely to be influenced by the prevailing social norm and the pressure – express or implied – to conform to those norms. Milgram (1977) suggest that person from small towns as opposed to large industrial cities are more likely to intervene to help a person in need. The perceived characteristics of the victim are also likely to have an influence in the likelihood of a bystander intervening. Pilivian, Rodin and Pilivian (1969) conducted an experiment involving a man collapsing on the New York subway. When he smelled of alcohol and carried a bottle of alcohol, he was far less likely to be helped than we he appeared sober and carried a walking stick instead of a bottle. Piliavin et al (1975) conducted a study suggesting that where the victim had a prominent facial birthmark, the likelihood of a bystander helping reduced to 61%, whereas a far higher proportion of bystanders would intervene where the victim did not have such a birthmark. Similar results were found where an artificial blood capsule was used by the victim to give the appearance of blood. Studies suggest that the closeness of the relationship between the person requiring help and the bystander is a factor that contributes towards the likelihood of helping (Geer Jarmecky, 1973; Moriarity 1975, Tikker 1970) or where there is a relationship where the victim is particularly dependant on the bystander (Berkowitz, 1978). Findings by Burnstein et al (1994) suggest that the tendency varies according to the age of the victim. Where the situation was involving a ‘life or death’ situation, the likelihood of the victim being helped generally decreased the older they were. Where the situation involved an ‘everyday situation’ rather than a ‘life or death’ situation, infants and the elderly were more likely to be helped that those who were young adults or middle aged. The individual characteristics of the bystander will have an influence on them intervening in a particular situation. Bystanders who have relevant skills or expertise were the most likely to offer help to a victim (Huston et al, 1981). Gaertner and Dovidio (1977) suggested that a perceived similarity between the bystander and the person requiring help can influence the likelihood of intervention. However, the degree of perceived similarity may not need so great, where the situation is one which involves a genuine emergency. A number of studies have shown that situational factors have an influence over the likelihood of a bystander intervening. Where the situation has an ambiguous quality about it, for example, someone who may equally appear drunk or suffering from a heart attack, the likelihood of intervention is reduced (Brickman et al, 1982). Batson et al (1978) suggested that bystanders take into account not only the perceived emergency itself, but also the task that they were undertaking when becoming aware of the emergency. In one experiment, participants were informed that they had to hurry to a destination. Of those that were told to hurry, only 10% stopped to help the victim, compared to 80% who had not been told that they had to hurry to their destination. Where the bystander was experiencing guilt, the likelihood of intervention may be higher (McMillen Austin, 1971; Regan 1972). There are contradictory studies as to whether positive or negative states will increase the likelihood of helping. Thompson et al (1980) suggest that negative emotional states do not always necessarily lead to helping, whereas Ibsen et al (1976) suggest that people is a positive or happy emotional state are more likely to intervene or help someone in need. Batson (1991) put forward an empathy-altruism hypothesis to try and explain why people may go to the assistance of others. He suggests that altruistic behaviour is motivated by empathy. The greater degree of empathy, the greater the likelihood of intervention, even though it may involve some cost (or the absence of a benefit) to the person intervening. According to this hypothesis, when we observe someone in distress, two emotional reactions occur. The first is empathetic concern, and the second is our own personal distress or discomfort. Other commentators (Cialdini et al, 1987), (Maner et al 2002) and Preston De Waal 2002, question whether people help others purely out of altruistic concern and instead suggest that a desire to reduce their own distress in someone suffering is a factor in them intervening. According to Cialdini’s negative-state relief model, a person who experiences empathy as a result of seeing some suffering, experiences a degree of emotional distress themselves. In order to reduce their own distress, they take steps to help the person in need. Cialdini suggests that empathic concern should not lead to helping behaviour if steps are taken to remove the feelings of distress usually found with empathy. One of most consistent findings regarding the likelihood of bystander intervention is relation to the number of bystanders perceived to be present at an emergency situation. Numerous studies have demonstrated that â€Å"an individual’s likelihood of giving help decreases as the number of other bystanders also witnessing an emergency increases† (Latanà ©, Nida Wilson, 1981). This apparent ‘bystandar apathy’ was perhaps most apparent in the case of Kitty Genovese. She was stabbed to death, and though 38 people witnessed the murder from their apartments, none of them intervened. Only one person telephoned the police and that was only after considerable thought and only after he had sought the advice from a friend. The police in particular, could not understand why more people had not called the police. Latane and Darley (1968) suggested that a person may be in a more fortunate position where there is just one bystander rather than several. In such a situation, responsibility falls on them personally to take action rather than being spread amongst many. The greater the number of bystanders, the greater the diffusion of responsibility and the less likelihood of intervention. Latanà © and Darley’s (1970) subsequently put forward a decision-making model to try and explain their various findings on bystander intervention. This model involves a sequence of decisions that must be made before intervention takes place:- Is something the matter? Is the event or incident interpreted as one in which assistance is required? Should the bystander accept personal responsibility? What kind of help should be provided by the bystander? Should the help required actually be carried out? Piliavin et al (1981) put forward an arousal / cost-reward model to try and explain the decision making process that a bystander may adopt in deciding whether to intervene:- Becoming aware of someone’s need for help. Experience and degree of arousal Interpreting cues and labeling their state of arousal Working out the rewards and costs associated with different actions Making a decision and acting on it. According to Piliavin et al, the costs and rewards are arguable the most significant factor. Costs of helping could include the risk of physical harm, delay in carrying out other tasks. Rewards of helping could include praise, personal satisfaction. Costs of not helping could be guilt, self-criticism, criticism from others. Rewards of not helping would be less risk of harm and ability to continue with other activities. In conclusion, the various studies show that whether help is given by a bystander to victim depends personal characteristics, situational factors and empathy. The effect of a bystander’s personal characteristics on their likelihood of intervening isn’t as pronounced as one might expect, although factors such as mood, social or moral values, and competence do have an influence. It would be interesting to examine situations where many or all of these influencing factors are present and assess which factors, if any, have a more dominant effect over others. However, this give to methodological and practical difficulties in assessing the weighting or influence of each factor. Learning reflection. I’ve found doing this assignment very difficult. No so much in the subject matter itself, but in simply having the time and space to consider all the materials and then being in the right frame of mind to think about the issues. Doing the job which I do involves something similar to writing these types of assignments – the subject matter is different but both involve wading through documents and evidence, evaluating the information and then putting together an argument. However, the job is significantly more burdensome – much more material to read, in a shorter space of time, together with other significant pressures and conflicts. More often than not, my brain is shot to pieces by the time I get home. Analysing further information perhaps results in overload. I tend to work best when I’m relaxed and have the time and space to think about the issues. Perhaps it would be easier for me to do several psychology assignments concurrently rather than consecutiv ely with set time limits. I have to undertake several parallel streams of work concurrently as part of my job, so it wouldn’t be something new to me. Bystander intervention has quite an interesting topic, although would seem that whatever can be said on bystander intervention has already been said in the various studies or texts on the subject. The assignment title is quite generalised. I would have preferred to ‘drill down’ into a specific aspect of bystander intervention and focus on that. That may have provided an opportunity to be more innovative or original. Otherwise, its difficult not to simply present information that’s previously been presented by someone else. I read somewhere that when doing these types of assignments a person should evaluate and critique the various studies. Critique is all very well and good and saying for example, that a particular methodology is flawed because participants to an experiment were given ‘mood pills’ that would affect their empathy, but critique of itself is annoying unless solutions are also presented or there’s an acknowledgment or understanding as why there were difficulties in the methodology of the experiment in the first place. Research Papers on The Images of September 11, 2001 - Psychology EssayEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThree Concepts of PsychodynamicMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoMind TravelInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementResearch Process Part OneCapital Punishment