Sunday, April 5, 2020
One of the most outstanding differences in these two categories of students is evident when each of the group is asked questions regarding certain visual learning aid. One of the groups remains unresponsive and passive. It is only one learner out of the entire group that raised his hand not to answer the question but rather to seek clarification from the teacher on what the latter had requested them to do.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What are schools for? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When activity cards were used and followed by questions, the very students remained unresponsive and full of anxiety. They remained tense and rigid throughout the lesson. The learning process usually aims at acquisition of right knowledge that can enable students to excel in their exams. When students in the first group were taken through creative activities as part of using illustrations and develo0ping an interactive lesson , they lacked confidence in their final work because of the fear of being judged. For instance, when presenting their creative work, they were filled with fear of ending up in mistakes and they were intensely worried about their academic performance rather than their prowess in other skills. On the other hand, students in group two demonstrated overwhelming willingness to interact with their teacher compared to those in the first group explored above. In addition, there was limited or invisible element of fear in the learning process. They identified easily with the visual aids presented to them. Moreover, in terms of new ideas that were being presented to them, they were apparently not afraid. Furthermore, this group of students was allowed to exploit their talents and this made learning experience interesting for them. They seemed to participate actively without anxiety, rigidity and fear of presenting their ideas and they were not afraid to make mistakes. They were also actively involved in problem solving activities and were in a position to socialize freely with other students. Consequently, after school, they were allowed to move into streets with minimal restraint. As a result, they did not concentrate or put much effort in improving their grades. They were given time to play and when they went back to class; they seemed to participate actively in the learning process. Moreover, these students acquired problem skills and critical thinking and they were ready to face the challenge of life outside the school.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The existing difference between the two groups of students can be largely attributed to the environment of learning and the manner in which learning process is initiated. While it may be prudent to appreciated individual differences among students, it is also worthy to note that a well coordinated learning environment is a crucial factor in determination of both skill/knowledge acquisition as well as academic performance. Furthermore, the differences can be attributed to the element of motivation. Students in the first group apparently lacked motivation and this made them not to be actively involved in the learning process. Their perception of learning process was completely different from that of the second group since they viewed it as a mere strategy of passing exams. Nonetheless, the more likely explanation is the element of motivation bearing in mind that motivational strategies assist in capturing the interest of students in addition to fully engaging them in the learning process. Moreover, visual aids do not only keep students active but also encourage them to participate actively in class since they are not afraid of making mistakes. Contrastingly, the most unlikely explanation is the learning experience or environment. This may be attributed to the fact that even though students were prese nted with visual aids, both groups were not equally motivated (Simon Fraser University par. 3). The school provided me with learning experiences that were appropriate. This enabled me to develop as well as grow as a thoughtful adult. For instance, through the available education programs, every student was given the chance to develop and nurture both attitude and knowledge in addition to skills. It is imperative to note that the latter ideals will definitely enable everyone to become a thoughtful adult (Boyer 58). Through this, every student is in a position to become not only a consumer but also a family member, a responsible citizen, a producer and thoughtful individual. Indeed, I am not an exception in these gainful returns of acquiring the right knowledge and skills. In addition, due to the fact that the schools do teach both morality and virtue, I became so thoughtful in principles such as justice, truth and reality and thus becoming a responsible citizen who loves and cares fo r humanity in addition to being industrious in character.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What are schools for? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, being thoughtful requires one to gain necessary skills that will enable him or her to work towards positive transformation of society. It is against this backdrop that elementary education enabled me to be thoughtful in doing the same with affection (Postman Weingartne 59). In the half unit titled Ã¢â¬Å"essentials and benefits of the free enterprise systemÃ¢â¬ , I learnt to value the importance of cooperating with other people. This assisted me towards attaining better understanding of my worth and also be able to apply the same not only within the school environment but also to society as a whole. Moreover, elementary learning experience taken me through a learning process out of which I acquired the right skills and knowledge that enabled me be resili ent in life and become an independent adult after school. I learnt the basics of life skills that were bound with both ethical and cultural body. The knowledge I acquired was delivered in a coherent manner that enhanced and greatly improved my critical thinking skills. In my opinion, I suppose schools should assist students in developing potential ability to think critically in addition to communicating in an effective manner. As a matter of fact, the ability to communicate coherently is an important return that should be accrued by each learner in the process of acquiring knowledge. Emphatically, high school education should assist students in gaining knowledge not only about their human heritage but also be able to survive independently in the world. The schools have successfully delivered the same by developing a core curriculum that is based on real life experience (Boyer 67). Moreover, schools should aim at preparing students for both further education and work. However, school s have managed to attain this by developing elective programs that develop studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests and aptitudes within and outside school community (Boyer 67). Finally, schools should aim at assisting students in not only fulfilling their social duties but also civic ones. So far, schools have achieved this through community and school services programs. Hence, schools act as important threshold towards positive development of both society and immediate community.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Boyer, Ernest. Four essential goals in High school: A report on secondary education in America. New York: Harper Row, 1983. Postman, Neil Weingartner, Charles. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s worth knowing? In Teaching as a subversive activity. New York: Dell. 1969. Simon Fraser University. The Gifted CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Weigh That Giraffe. 2011. Web. This essay on What are schools for? was written and submitted by user Adele O. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
20 Analytical Essay Topics What to Discuss in the Lyric Poetry of Paul Celan If you are facing a literary analysis writing assignment on the lyric poetry of Paul Celan, the first place you need to start is with a topic. Below are 20 topics you might want to use: The Role That Survivors Guilt Plays in the Arts and How the Different Manifestation of Guilt in Different People Influence the Language Used and Communication Used Analysis of a Poem of Your Choosing The Role Played by the PoetÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression and Whether That Depression Helped or Hindered His Poems. How Poetry Is Self-Expression How Poetry Can Heal Entire Nations or Peoples The Reason the Poet Used Neologisms with Surreal Imagery in order to Cultivate a Powerful Image in the Minds of the Readers Analysis of a Made Up Word of Your Choosing How the PoetÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems Bury Emotional Content Related to the Unspeakable Horrors He Experienced and Witnessed during the Holocaust How Meaning Is Lost in the Translation The Use of Surreal Metaphors How CenalÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems Differ from Traditional Poetic Style How Psychological Survival Skills Used in the Labor Camp Result in Feelings and Events Being Dissociated beyond Consciousness The Importance of Not Using Standard Poetry Techniques How Poetic Influence Is Measured How German Is a Unique, Scientific, and Technically Literal Language such That It Afforded the Poet More Flexibility in Creating His Own Vocabulary in the Language Can Poetry Come from a Happy Life What Defines Poetry as Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ How Conjectural Meanings Played a Role in His Word Poetry as Self-Therapy The Way in Which the Disconnect from the German Language and the Relation It Had to the Death Of His Parents Played in His Using His Own German Vocabulary as a Means of Control over the Enemy and Therapy ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t those cool topics? Of course, they are because they open the deep background of CelanÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry. These topics are based on the facts about Paul CelanÃ¢â¬â¢s lyric poetry. However, if you have troubles conducting the analysis, visit our guide on analytical writing. Below is a sample essay on one of those 20 topics: Sample Analytical Essay: Ã¢â¬Å"The Way in Which the Disconnect from the German Language and the Relation It Had to the Death of His Parents Played in His Using His Own German Vocabulary as a Means of Control over the Enemy and TherapyÃ¢â¬ SurvivalÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt is a powerful psychological effect that often accompanies survivors of mass atrocities and war, including the labor camps and concentration camps so prevalent during the Second World War. For the poet Paul Celan, this took combined with the survival skills learned during his two years in the labor camps are responsible for pushing forward his need to seek therapy in whatever form was best suited for his situation. That form was the specific changing of the German vocabulary and use of the German language as the mother tongue for his poems. It was in 1942 that Paul Celan left his mother and father to go into hiding. They opted not to follow in spite of the inherent risks of remaining at home. It was on this night that both were arrested, deported, and ended up dying in concentration camps. His father died of disease but his mother was shot and killed when she was no longer physically able to work. He was taken to a labor camp where he worked for two years before escaping. As part of his time there, Paul Celan developed survival skills the same as everyone else. These skills enabled him to compartmentalize his feelings, to place sympathy and empathy on the same playing field so as to avoid a break down. This skill also allowed him to ignore the unbearable sounds, smells, and sights through disassociation, wherein the individual remains in a trance-life state which is beyond that of consciousness. This is a complex psychological state of being, one which must be dealt with after the fact. The manner in which Paul Celan dealt with it was through his poetry. Working through the survivorÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt and attempting to move beyond the disassociation and survival skills developed, the poet began to write his own works. While fluent in three languages and familiar with six, he learned German, a trait common among those who are dealing with mass atrocities; he learned his enemy and studied it deeply. During this time he opted to write all of his poetry in the German language. This language was the language of the people who murdered his mother, who took away his father, who put him in a camp himself, and more. But in writing in their language, the poet was able to gain some semblance of power back over his enemy who had taken so much from him. He was able to learn their ways, their meanings, and to not just write in their language but to change it. Paul Celan was popular for the vocabulary he created for the sake of his poetry. He was popular for making new words, for using traditional German prefixes and postfixes and making words which are similar to commonly used phrases, but are slightly different. Indeed, part of the ability and ease with which this was done reflects upon the German language itself, a very practical language full of literal terms and very few figurative turns of phrase. But in addition to the Greek and Latin roots so prevalent in the German language, the poet opted to do this because it offered a mild form of therapy, a way of taking back the control that was lost to him at the hands of the Nazis. For a people whose entire goal in the war was to preserve their motherland and mother tongue, to make sure that their purity went on to create the master race, the manner in which the poet spliced their mother tongue into pieces and infiltrated the pure language they held so dear was a way to re-gain control over what they did, to show them that they had not achieved a victory over him, and to get back at them in the same invasive and deeply inappropriate fashion that they had done to him. He violated the sanctity of their native tongue as a way of violating one of the things they held most dear as a people and in this way achieved revenge for their violation of the sanctity of his family unit. References: Celan, Paul, and Michael Hamburger.Ã Poems Of Paul Celan. New York: Persea Books, 1989. Print. Celan, Paul, and Pierre Joris.Ã Paul Celan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Print. Celan, Paul, Barbara Wiedemann, and Nelly Sachs.Ã Paul Celan, Nelly Sachs. Riverdale-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Sheep Meadow Press, 1995. Print. Celan, Paul, Ilana Shmueli, and Susan H Gillespie.Ã The Correspondence Of Paul Celan Ilana Shmueli. Riverdale-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Sheep Meadow Press, 2010. Print. Celan, Paul, Werner Hamacher, and Winfried Menninghaus.Ã Paul Celan. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988. Print. Ives, Margaret C., Haskell M. Block, and Paul Celan. The Poetry Of Paul Celan.Ã The Modern Language ReviewÃ 89.2 (1994): 530. Web. Meyerhofer, Nicholas J., Clarise Samuels, and Paul Celan. Holocaust Visions: Surrealism And Existentialism In The Poetry Of Paul Celan.Ã German Studies ReviewÃ 18.2 (1995): 364. Web.
Friday, February 21, 2020
E-Banking and the Leadership - Essay Example Leadership and management are closely related but it can be easily said that leadership ability is an essential part of managing effectively. The differences between management and leadership lie in their motivation styles. For leaders, the leadership styles tend to be transformational or transactional whereas mangers tend to be more authoritative. Leaders have a vision and they are oriented towards driving a change. As for managers they are more focused on adapting to changes and implementation and achievement of goals. There is also a difference between the personality types of leaders and managers. While managers tend to try to achieve stability leaders are more inclined towards risks from changes. (Brown, 2009) Thus it may seem that management and leadership emerge from different ends of the spectrum but in reality the qualities of a good leader and manager compliment and enhance each other. Thus though these are two different approaches they tend to work well with each other bri nging about the best in the organization and from its people. Leadership and management has been a focus of many studies which have traced the roots of leadership characteristics as well as studied the different kinds and dimensions of leadership. A brief overview of these studies done over a long period of time is taken to draw conclusions about leadership and the basic differences between management and leadership.... There are multiple theories of leadership which explain whether leaders are born or evolved. They also describe the kinds and the qualities of effective leaders. There are also studies which identify different types of leaders. As compared to this the basic management functions consist of Planning, organizing, leading, controlling, decision making and problem solving. The University of Iowa studies The University of Iowa studies in the 1930's identifies 3 broad styles of leadership. They were labeled authoritarian, democratic and Laissez fair. The authoritarian leader was directive I his style and did not encourage participation from his followers. The democratic leader encouraged discussion and participation and tried to be objective. Nevertheless he was the one who made the decisions. In contrast the laissez fair leader allowed complete freedom to the followers to make and follow their own decisions. (Martin, 2005, p. 351) Trait theory These traditional theories of leadership inclu de the Trait theory of leadership which distinguishes leaders from non-leaders. It says that there are personal qualities and characteristics which define a leader and that leaders are born and cannot be made. Leaders are described as courageous, enthusiastic and charismatic and examples include Mahatama Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. Research later validated that all leadership traits can be broadly categorized under the Big Five traits of leadership which were extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and emotional stability. Recent studies have also found that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership. (Robbins, 2010, p. 174) Behavioural theories The behavioural theories of leadership focused on observable behaviours
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Designing an Daptive Mobile Learning Using Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory - Dissertation Example Ubiquitous learning is highly contextual and involves multiple technologies like mobile, wireless, sensing, etc. Context-aware ubiquitous learning platform (CULP) is one such platform that is found to enhance the efficiency of learning (Gu et al., n.d.; Hwang et al., 2011; Hwang et al., 2010). Howard GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s multiple intelligence theory is Ã¢â¬Å"a classical model by which to understand and teach many aspects of human intelligence, learning style, personality and behaviour - in education and industryÃ¢â¬ (Chapman, 2009). Earlier tools were limited in providing real-time support through mutual collaboration; however, most recent tools for adaptive learning through multiple intelligences have state-of-the-art technologies enabling a real-world adaptive learning environment for CULP. Multiple Intelligences, Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks are also used in developing ubiquitous learning tools (Cabada et al., 2008). The models for such tools will be studied in this paper to help design a new model that can address the short-comings in the present models. The proposed model for ubiquitous learning will be a comprehensive and highly adaptive model based on the use of multiple intelligences. ... FRAME) (Figure 1) addressed the issue of information overload, navigation of content and collaboration for gaining the relevant knowledge by focusing on the integration of mobile technology, human learning capacity and social interactions. Figure 1: FRAME model for mobile learning. Source: (Koole, 2011). Context-sensitive learning schedule framework, mCALS, uses context-aware location and time information to schedule learning. Verification for the strict adherence of schedule for learning is also incorporated in this framework (Yau et al., 2010). SungÃ¢â¬â¢s (2009) Ubiquitous Learning Environment (ULE) model uses MI theory and effectively combines the advantages that an adaptive learning environment and ubiquitous computing have to offer along with the flexibility of mobile devices. This combination enables learning collaborators, content and services to be available in a context-aware framework. While the models discussed have been able to allow interaction based on context-awaren ess, Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), similar to Artificial Intelligence (AI), has a low-end model called TenseITS which offers the flexibility of learning English tenses and does not take into consideration the individual needs of the learner in terms of location. C-POLMILE is another standard model of ITS that offers synchronised learning capability over PC and a mobile environment, and is used for C programming. MoreMATHS is another extension of ITS, used for mobile revision for Maths as it offers a Math learning environment that is mainly on the PC with revision enabled on a mobile device. Similarly, SQL ITS is another customized ITS for MS SQL database administration that can be synchronised with the mobile device (Bull et al., 2004). Cui and Bull (2005) note that TenseITS adapts to the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Design and Construction of Liquefaction Tank Chapter 3. Methodology As mentioned in previous chapters, the objective of the project is to design and construct a liquefaction tank to be used during geotechnical engineering lectures and laboratory sessions to demonstrate the liquefaction phenomenon fundamental concept. Existing liquefaction models The liquefaction demonstration tank is not anything new. In fact, it is a classic in a geotechnical engineering program. This demonstration experiment tends to leave a lasting impression on the students mind. It is easy to find numerous figures and pictures of a basic quicksand model. For example, Holtz and Kovacs (1981) demonstrate a conceptual design diagram of a liquefaction tank, as shown in figure 3.1. The model consists of two tanks. The water tank is at the bottom and the top tank contains sand. A pump is used to pump the water from the bottom tank into the sand tank, creates the upward flow in the quicksand tank. Flowing through the porous stone layer at the bottom of the sand tank, the upward water pressure is distributed evenly over the entire base of the sand layer, keeping the porewater pressure constant throughout. Number of piezometers is installed directly onto the sand tank at different level, which enables water heads within the quicksand tank during the experiment t o be observed and readings to be taken. From the literature research, there are two existing quicksand models built at other universities, pictures of which are obtained. Essentially, the concept is similar in both tanks. There are two separate containers, one on the top contains sand specimen and a tank with water at the bottom that will be used to fill and drain the sand tank into. Figure 3.2 shows the model at the University of Illinois which is very similar to the diagram in figure 3.1. The other liquefaction tank shown in figure 3.3 is built at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Instead of using pump, a standpipe is used to create and control the upwards flows in the sand tank. Also the piezometers in this model are installed on a separated board. Using flexible tubes, they are connected to valves installed at the side of the tank. A dial-gauge used to measure the vertical settlement of the object on top of the sand mass when it liquefies. Design of the model After evaluating all of the existing liquefaction models, an outline drawing including all dimensions and key features was drawn as shown in figure 3.4. The main concept of the model is kept the same as those existing models. Utilising a hydraulic bench to contain water and support the sand tank, pump and water tank is not be needed. As for the liquefaction tank, there are numerous requirements that its design has to meet. First all of the tank, measured 500x500x700mm, must be make strong enough to support the pressure created by the sand and water mass (about 200kg) in side. It also needs to be made water proof to prevent water from leaking out. One of the important requirements is that the tank must be transparent enough to enable a clear visual of the sand and the phenomenon happens in site to be observed. Taking all consideration into account, the sand tank is made out of fabricated Perspex panels glued together using impermeable glue. Similar to the model at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, five piezometers are installed on a separated board and connected to the tank using flexible tubes. This enables the model to be moved around safer and easier compared with rigid piezometers installed on the tank due to the significant height required. The tank also has two valves one on side acting as the inlet and out let, which helps to control the upward flow inside the tank. An overflow tube also is incorporated at the top. At each tube and valves connections, filter is used to prevent the sand particles from leaking out. Inside the tank, there nine plastic cylinders placed at the bottom of the tank to support the mass. The sand will sit on a layer porous stone of 40mm thick which contained by 2 layers of metal meshes with drilled holes. This allows the upward water flow to be distributed evenly over area of the sand mass base. Layers of geotextile are placed between the stone layer and the sand layer, which effectively stops the fine particles from leaking down to the porous stone layer. The sand was filled up to the height of the fifth piezometer which made up a total thickness of 430mm from the metal mesh base. The sand tank is placed on top of the hydraulic bench. There is also a steel frame support to be made in the future to secure the tank to the bench, enables it to be moved around safely. Based on these drawings, with the assistance of our departmental senior technicians, the tank was constructed as shown in figure 3.5. There is a small modification to the design, which the valves are not connected directly onto the side panel but through a thick layer of Perspex prevents any crack to occurs at the connections. Similar to the model at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, a dial gauge attached to a steel bar place over the top of the tank, is used to measure the vertical settlement of the model. A metal string helps to secure the structure model to the steel bar, which enable the model to be taken out of the tank easily after completely sinking into the sand mass. Testing materials Porous stone layer As described in the final design of the model, there is a porous stone layer with a thickness of 40mm placed between the sand and the mesh support. For this project, 10mm concrete aggregate was used to make up this stone layer. A sieve analysis was carried out on a 1 kg of sample to determine the grain size redistribution of this type of aggregate. Leighton Buzzard sand Once constructed, the model was used for testing liquefaction resisting performance of number of different type of structures. For these tests, Leighton Buzzard Sand fraction C was used. This was supplied by the David Ball Group, Cambridge, UK, confirming to BS 1881-131:1998. After performing number of classification tests namely maximum and minimum density and sieve analysis on the 0.5kg sample, properties of the sand were determined as follows. Specific gravity of the Leighton Buzzard Sand fraction C was 2.65. Minimum and maximum dry densities were 1.40 g/cm3 and 1.68 g/cm3, respectively. These are value corresponding to the maximum and minimum void ratios which were calculated as 0.89 and 0.58, respectively. More than 80% of the coarse sand particles, which are rounded and mainly quartz, are between (around) 300 ÃâÃ µm and 600 ÃâÃ µm which meets the BS 1881-131:1998 standard. Resisting structure models For this project, three small models with similar weight were made, representing three different foundation designs as shown in figure 3.6. All three models have same shape, weight and made of the same materials. Table 3.1 shows the dimension and weight of the models. Models A represents pile foundation for high raise buildings and large infrastructures. Model B represents a typical mat foundation which is a shallow foundation for small and medium houses and apartment buildings. Model C acts as the control which is just a standard block structure without foundation. Testing procedures To enable a comparison of the performance of the different types of foundations, the liquefaction tank was used to create the quicksand condition, in which the model placed on top of the sand surface, starts to sink down when the top sand layer liquefied. As mentioned in the literature review, there are various factors that can influent the liquefaction susceptibility namely soil particle grain size, upwards seepage and level of compaction. For this experiment to be accurate, all of the above parameters were kept approximately constant from one test to the other. The same sand, Leighton Buzzard (fraction C) was used in all three tests. Initial water level within the tanks as well as the flow rate controlled by the inlet valve with also was kept the same. All nine supports were placed at the bottom of the liquefaction tank, followed by the metal mesh and the qeotextile layer. A 40mm thick layer of cleaned concrete aggregate was put on top of the geotextile and slightly compacted. Another layer of geotextile and metal mesh were put in before pouring the sand in. The sand were poured into the tank and compacted evenly in three layers. Once the model and the dial gauge were installed on top of the tank, the experiment was ready to run. While the outlet was completely closed, the inlet valve was opened to allow the water is pumped in the tank creating an upward flow, hence the change in pore water pressure between the sand particles and the increase in the water level in the piezometers. Hydraulic heads reading from the piezometers at different levels were recorded periodically and later on used to determine pore water pressure inside the tank. As predicted by the theory, as the inlet, valve 1, is opened to let the water to flow in, the h ead at the bottom of the sand layer will gradually increase and eventually to a sufficient value which can cause the sand to liquefy. The upward seepage forces will balance the downwards gravitational forces created by the sand mass. Hence rendering the shear strength of the sand to zero, any structure/object placed on top of the sand surface will sink in gradually sink into the sand mass. The whole procedure of the test will be recorded using a digital camera for reference when analyzing the data. As can be noticed form the figure 3.5, a small amount of blue dye was added to all five piezometers, to enhance the visibility of the water level inside the tube, especially when taking pictures and video. This can cause the non unity density of the liquid inside the whole length of the tube and result in the inaccurate measurements of the heads in the tank. However, since the amount of dye is minimal and taking the non unity of the water inside the tank, it is assumed that the head represented by the piezometers is approximately same as the head inside the tanks. In fact, this can be shown in figure 3.7, where inlet and outlet valves are closed, the water level inside the tank is stationary. The different in heads caused by the non unity of the fluid can hardly be seen in all five piezometer. Data collection Liquefaction is a phenomenon that tends to occur very quickly. Therefore manual readings taking from all five piezometers are difficult and not very accurate. For this project, a digital camera was used to capture pictures at interval and record a video of the whole experiment. From the reading of the piezometers, porewater pressures at different level inside the tank will be calculated during the whole experiments. From these data, graph of settlement against porewater pressure will be plotted for each experiment. Since all other parameters were kept constant from one test to the other, excepts for the type of foundation used, therefore difference between graphs will enable a comparison between the different type of foundation to be drawn.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald Thesis: The pursuit of the American Dream is a dominant theme throughout The Great Gatsby, which is carried out in various ways by F. Scott Fitzgerald, how the author represents this theme through his characters and their actions is one small aspect of it. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fitzgerald's dominant theme in The Great Gatsby focuses on the corruption of the American Dream. By analyzing high society during the 1920s through the eyes of narrator Nick Carraway, the author reveals that the American Dream has transformed from a pure ideal of security into a convoluted scheme of materialistic power. In support of this message, Fitzgerald highlights the original aspects as well as the new aspects of the American Dream in his tragic story to illustrate that a once impervious dream is now lost forever to the American people. The foundation qualities of the American Dream depicted in The Great Gatsby are perseverance and hope. The most glorified of these characteristics is that of success against is that of success against all odds. The ethic of hard work can be found in the life of young James Gatz, whose focus on becoming a great a man is carefully documented in his ?Hopalong Cassidy? journal. When Mr. Gatz shows the tattered book to Nick, he declares, ? Jimmy was bound to get ahead. He always has some resolves like this or something. Do you notice what he?s got about improving his mind? He was always great for that? (Fitzgerald, pg 182). The journal portrays the continual struggle for self-improvement, which has defined the image of America as a land of opportunity. ?By comparing the young James Gatz to the young Benjamin Franklin, Fitzgerald proves that the American Dream is indeed able to survive in the face of modern society.?(Website) A society naturally breaks up in into various social groups over time. Members of lower statuses constantly suppose that their problems will be resolved if they gain enough wealth to reach the upper class. Many interpret the American dream as being this passage to high social status and once reaching that point, not having to concern about money at all. Though, the American Dream involves more than the social and economic standings of an individual. ?The dream involves attaining a balance between the spiritual strength and the physical strength of an individual.?(Lehan, pg.53) Jay Gatsby fails to reach... ...esurrected. Through the unfolding events of a doomed romance, Fitzgerald simultaneously unfolds the tragic fate of American values. Gatsby possesses an extreme imbalance between the material and spiritual sides of himself. His ultimate goal of love swaps places with his secondary goal of becoming rich. He portrays the ultimate failure of the American Dream in that individuals tend to believe wealth is everything. Historically, America was the new world of endless opportunity and wealth. But a nation cannot operate solely on materialism. The spirits of individuals are the true composition of a nation. Gatsby and the other characters of his story act as vessels for the author?s true message- the American Dream, once a pure and mighty ideal has been buried and is pressed into the ground by the inhuman void of money. Nick Caraway conveys this message as an outsider, an honest man who is witnessing the entire ordeal as an observer. The Great Gatsby is not the tribute of a name named Jay Gatsby; rather, it is the tribute of an institution which once was, but is now gone and can never be. Works Cited: Fitzgerald, Scott F. The Great Gatsby. Simon and Schuster, New York. 1925.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Huawei Technologies How is HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s internationalisation endeavour a good success story example for other companies wanting to pursue global growth? Introduction Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. provides telecommunications equipment and solutions to operators in China and internationally. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products include wireless and networking equipment, applications and software, and terminals; smartphones for French users; and metro services platforms, which help operators to build broadband metro area networks. It also offers mobile network, broadband network, IP-based and optical network, and telecom value-added services. Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. has strategic partnerships with IBM, the Hay Group, PwC, FhG, Intel, Texas Instruments, Freescale Semiconductor, Qualcomm, Infineon, Agere Systems, Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, and HP. Huawei Technologies is a Chinese company. It was established in1988 by Ren Zhengfei, a former PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberation Army officer and telecom engineer. HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters site, of modern and impressive building fittings, is situated in Shenzhen, southern China (Guandong province). In 2006, Huawei Technologies was among the ranks of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"National ChampionsÃ¢â¬ , along Haier, Lenovo TCL, and the Wanxiang Group, poised to compete with global leaders in the international market place. Huawei has also been dubbed as the Cisco of China. It is thus a multinational corporation with branch offices in 100 countries which serves over one billion users worldwide. The question is then begged as to why Huawei is so competitive? What were and could be the challenges the Chinese-based company faces? What are the implications of HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy? In this paper I will attempt to analyse Huawei Technologies strategy to internalisation by taking in account the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s starting point in China, and by setting the stage for the comparison of HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s to that CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. I will then proceed with some recommendations on what a Chinese company could have done to better prepare for competition in the US telecom industry. And conclude with some remarks on the progress made by Huawei since 2006, when the case study on which the analysis is based was compiled. Company Overview From its very beginnings, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision has been to become a lighthouse of innovation which would successfully enable it to compete first in its home market, and then proceed with international expansion. When the company was still operating only in China, HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology around its goals, to not be set up in joint ventures with foreign companies, to pursue global cutting-edge technologies, persist on self-development, and expand internationally, largely consisted in extensive investment in research and development (R&D) capabilities, and hiring a highly-qualified workforce from China. Huawei was created almost single-handedly under the strong vision and leadership of Zhingfei. He fostered a unique and rigorous management culture, by building a Ã¢â¬Å"pack-of-wolves enterpriseÃ¢â¬ . He instilled a management philosophy within the company which meant to view competition and market opportunities with a keen smell, react to with an aggressive push and always confront both in unified groups. Under ZhengfeiÃ¢â¬â¢s lead, who had been successful to create and manage a large relationship network, few other competitors could match, the company had relied on big contract orders from the military to secure a foothold in the telecom network market in its early years. Moreover, extended army and government ties had provided the company with relatively easy access to financing. Huawei was undoubtedly the largest Chinese telecom equipment manufacturer, with annual revenue of US$6. 7 billion in 2005. Market capitalisation was estimated to be up to US$10 billion. In China, HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s major customers included all the big names such as China Telecom, China Mobile, China Netcom and China Unicom. HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s networks in China served over 400 million people communicating across the country, occupied 25% market share in the mobile networks, and supplied 80% of all short messaging services from China mobile. Therefore, HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to focus on R&D to lead technological advancement, its attention to choose high-calibre and yet inexpensive labour from China, as well as foster a consolidated sense of corporate culture none but confirmed HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s stable, long-term oriented organic growth strategy. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage in its home turf had built up to be low-cost engineering, enabling Huawei to compete with large indigenous and foreign competitors. Cisco, Huawei, and the International Market of Telecom Equipment and Services Cisco, which global presence spurred with the enlarging footprint of the internet across the globe in 1991, decided to focus its growth strategy in China by the end of the 1990s. CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy in China consisted in recruiting and training employees to service high-end markets of telecom service providers and enterprise markets. Instead of forming joint ventures with local partners (like most of its international competitors did in China), Cisco opened its own subsidiary in China, Cisco Networking Technology Co. Ltd. to promote education, demonstration and development of network technology. Educational initiatives presented Cisco with an opportunity to develop favourable relations with Chinese authorities and to cultivate new areas of business within China. Moreover, recognising the large, low-cost and skilled labour force in China, Cisco continued its commitment in the country by investing in an R &D centre in Shanghai. CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO plans for the facility were to allow Cisco access to technology and local talent so as to leverage CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s newness to the corporate culture of China and be able for it to buy into the local Chinese local market. CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was by all means to maintain its leadership position in cutting edge technology. While at the same time, Chinese competitors were using their aggressive pricing strategies to expand into the international markets, and were rapidly using their low-cost advantages to move up the value chain. And Huawei was among the Chinese companies that were expected to make further inroads into international markets in the next few years, competing head-to-head with established Western players for the same global accounts. Internationalisation: Phase 1 Having secured a strong foothold in its home market in China, Huawei started to look for diverse sources of growth internationally, in the first half of the 1990s. However, it was able to conclude its first significant international contract only in 2000, in Russia. In order to avoid outright competitive confrontations with well-established Western telecommunication multinationals, Huawei went global by first entering growing markets in developing countries. Considerable contracts extended later on beyond Eastern Europe, in South America (BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed line carrier) and Asia (ThailandÃ¢â¬â¢s largest mobile service provider). HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s path toward the matured Western European markets, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s next challenge, would not come without tradeoffs. In the early 2000s, Huawei was a new company competing for market share with established global communications technology suppliers. Chinese products were then suffering from a common perception of being cheap and unreliable, forcing Huawei to thus pursue aggressive tactics to win contracts. With 30% lower pricing points than established competitors, a commitment to offer trial periods for its products and hiring local personnel to tailor technologies and services to customers' needs, led the company to win contracts in tough-to-please markets such as France (Neuf Telecom, 2001). The biggest success, however, and the one that signified HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s breakthrough in Europe, was in 2004 when the company was selected by a Dutch mobile operator to build its 3G mobile phone network, by then HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s hallmark capability. Internationalisation: Phase 2 In order to highlight the key points of HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s internationalisation strategy, the case of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance in the U. S. calls for an analytical stop. The challenges Huawei faced in the North American market revolve around several axes, but overall the endeavour highlights the general lack of preparation and some strategic blunders which made the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top management decide to update HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and draft one that caters to long term sustainable development. When it opened its first office in Plano, Texas, the company made every effort to blend into the local culture. It shared the building with law offices, realtors and the regional office of the lingerie company VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Secret. A Texas state flag and an American receptionist welcomed visitors on the ground-floor lobby. Shortly after the US-launch, however, the defect of not having carefully planned for cultural differences eventually surfaced. Chinese employees had a difficult time adapting to the Texas accent and other aspects of the local culture. Huawei executives also realised that Americans had difficulty pronouncing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name. They came up with a working name, Futurei, which although facilitated to a better pronunciation, only confused targeted customers even more, and HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s infant brand came under great shock. In the US telecommunications industry, a mature market where lower prices often are not enough to land a deal, winning customers and contracts would demand for a lot more effort. Phone companies and equipment suppliers had long term ties with their equipment suppliers, customers looked for exceptionally leading-edge technology and a compelling reason to switch. Moreover, trying to switch to a virtually unrecognised brand in the US market meant that telecom service providers Ã¢â¬â HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s classical customers Ã¢â¬â would request exhaustive testing of equipment quality and reliability, lasting several months, before committing to buying it; a common procedure for sourcing from an unknown company. Another hurdle Huawei encountered was a lawsuit Cisco launched, only six months after Huawei had set up its subsidiary in the US. Analysts observed that HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s steep discounting of low-end routers [CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s] products in its home turf, the US market, had prompted the lawsuit [of alleged infringement of CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s patents and copyrights]. This was CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s first intellectual property lawsuit despite its huge intellectual portfolio. Huawei ended up by agreeing to withdraw from the market place Quidway routers and other related products. Three years after its US launch, the company was able to land its first contract with a US wireless carrier in 2004, and subsequently securing other contracts with small wireless carriers. Huawei had serious intentions for the U. S. market. Yet cultural risk and CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s buying power in its home turf, led to a substantial delay of results, and thus loss of revenue and opportunity for Huawei. Despite having a powerful and well recognised brand name, when Cisco started its venture into China (in 1998), it began by first building on local labour-skill capabilities and government network to leverage on its inexperience in the Chinese market and thus buy into market sales power among corporate customers. Huawei, on the other hand was literally unknown in the US market. And it was naive enough to assume that American corporate customers would be sufficed with high-quality low-cost equipments from an unknown Chinese company. Or that its organisation was rightly prepared to face global competition as aggressively and in the right way as it had done in China. CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s entry strategy into China was aggressive not because it offered low-cost high quality products, but expensive and exclusive technology, reinforced further via R centres spread across the country. Enterprises in China knew about and trusted CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s product quality nd reliability. The same cannot be said about HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s products. In spite of success in winning deals in developing countries, Huawei could not reach US corporate customers if they would not pass that easily the wall of perception that Chinese products were cheap and merely copied versions of other recognised telecom equipment and software. Recommendation Recommendations, or lessons to be drawn from HuaweiÃ¢â ¬â¢s experience, would capture the overall need for Chinese companies to acclimate to new surroundings first Ã¢â¬â just as the foreign companies that entered China did . Acclimatisation, for Huawei could have proceeded by: 1. Improving assessment of risk Ã¢â¬â economic, political, regulatory, cultural, organisational to avoid cultural and regulatory (the lawsuit) blunders. Huawei could have also better prepared to build a network before out rightly starting to target enterprise and corporate customers. 2. Preparing better for the entry strategy in the USÃ¢â¬â be it Greenfield, acquisition, merger or alliance. Cisco, to show its commitment for China, announced a US$100 million investment, stirring curiosity and interest among corporate customers and Chinese authorities. Huawei went into the US Ã¢â¬Å"quietlyÃ¢â¬ opening a branch office! 3. Developing global talent Ã¢â¬â R investment and international top managers with a global experience and extended local market knowledge, in order to enhance buying power into the local market. 4. Creating a global brand Ã¢â¬â to be accepted in the market place by using local industrial public relations companies can facilitate brand recognition in the initial stages. 5. Assessing and redesigning organisation and management style to one that caters four dimensions: Ã¢â¬ ¢co-orientation, the temporal dimension Ã¢â¬â being able to balance between short-term results for survival and long-term performance for sustainable profit growth; Ã¢â¬ ¢co-competence, the relationship dimension Ã¢â¬â persist on the dual possession of both transactional and relational competence; Ã¢â¬ ¢co-opetition Ã¢â¬â the capability to win market share through simultaneous competition and cooperation for reasons that range from brand name strengthening and market share growth; o be agile and flexible to re-adjust to shocks efficiently, and flexible enough to re-balance short-term results with long-term performance, and Ã¢â¬ ¢co-evolution Ã¢â¬â the pursuit of organisational adaptation to and proactive influence on the external environment facing a firm [Huawei] Concluding Analysis and Discussion The future of business is in its course to re-establishing itself in a [somewhat] changed order. The recent financial crisis has certainly tested the best and the worst of yesteryear strategies and management styles. Thanks also to a revived wave of globalisation companies are in the quest for profit, at a time when there are possibilities Ã¢â¬â probabilities Ã¢â¬â and uncertainty. The US market continues indeed to be a litmus test of endurance for non-American companies . Luckily, Huawei had sufficient financial cushion and top management agility to learn quickly and be able to modify its corporate business model strategy to fit the demands of its targeted customers Ã¢â¬â corporate clients. Ã¢â¬Å"Huawei Technologies Co. , Ltd. announced it will unveil a new mobile broadband solution Ã¢â¬ ¦ at Mobile World Congress 2010. This solution will accommodate the tremendous increase in mobile broadband traffic, reduce the per-bit cost by over 95%, and make mobile broadband services more profitable for operators worldwide. Today, mobile broadband services are growing exponentially, but operators have not yet been able to convert this into significant revenue streams. Huawei estimates that global data traffic on mobile broadband networks will grow 1,000 times over the next decade, from the current 85 million Giga-bytes per month in 2009. As the number of mobile broadband users continues to climb, subscribers will increasingly look for low tariffs with unlimited, high-speed access and abundant mobile broadband service, while operators will need network capabilities that allow them to accommodate the expansion pressures of mobile broadband network and profitable operation mode. Huawei would seem to be Ã¢â¬Å"swimmingÃ¢â¬ in a blue ocean now because it has been able to grow in scale and revenue while keeping a low cost structure. The R investment and ability to simultaneously fill a gap in telecom infrastructure by putting forward a unique value proposition to telecom end user customers and telecom serv ices suppliers. Mobile broadband users, growing exponentionally in numbers, are now being offered the possibility of low tariffs for unlimited, high-speed access and abundant broadband services. In turn, operators will need network capabilities that allow them to accommodate these expansion pressures on the mobile broadband network and retain profit margins. The case of Huawei Technologies certainly reflects a good example of success story in dealing with all the above issues. Chinese-based companies planning to become global may well benchmark HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s management structure and organisation in turning around the focus from high-tech products to customer-centric high-tech products and services, under an internationally accepted brand label. HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s top management certainly took a step back after the initial limping performance in the U. S. It now Ã¢â¬Å"believes that cooperating with customers, suppliers and leading players in the industry to face challenges together through a win-win strategy is essential in today's business worldÃ¢â¬ . Huawei has formed numerous partnerships [Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] with leading multinationals such as ADI, Agere, Altera, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Oracle, SUN, TI and Xilinx to improve the time to market of [Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] products, and to incorporate the latest technologies and best management practices into [the] company. [Such] will enhance [its] position [and brand image] in key international markets, [Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] and improve [its] response speed and service advantages in [the] supply chainÃ¢â¬ . As of 2010, Huawei has 87,502 employees, of whom 43% are dedicated to R&D. HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s most recently reported sales counted at US$18. 33 billion, a 75% increase from the 2006 sales, and with US$1. 15 in net profit. In 2009, it was named the world's top patent seeker, it was the first Chinese company to head the United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) list, its contract orders rose 46% to US$23. 3 billion (75% of which came from overseas), overtook Alcatel-Lucent to become world's No. 3 mobile network gear maker, and during the third quarter of 2009, Huawei passed Nokia Siemens Networks for the No. 2 position in the global mobile infrastructure equipment (according to research firm Dell'Oro)Ã¢â¬âa sign of the changing fortunes of the two vendors . HuaweiÃ¢â¬â¢s change in the strategy style is noticeable right at its formulation of the new vision Ã¢â¬â it is now Ã¢â¬Å"to enrich life through communicationÃ¢â¬ . The company continues to maintain a leading competitive position in the international industry of telecom technology and services, and only these days was elected 5th most innovative company in the World Ã¢â¬Å"behind only Facebook, Amazon, Apple, and GoogleÃ¢â¬ ! ________________________________________ Bibliography: Business Week, retrieved 2 March 2010 from (http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp? privcapId=1259829) Zeng, M. and Williamson, P. (2003) Ã « The Hidden Dragons Ã », Haward Business Review, October. Quoted in The Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Ref 06/300C Huawei Technologies Corporate Website Ã¢â¬â http://www. huawei. com/corporate_information/global_operations. do Huawei Technologies Annual Report 2009 Farhoomand, A. , The Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Ã¢â¬Å"Huawei: CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s Chinese challenger Ã¢â¬Å", 2006 Chen, J. Giant Rises in the East Ã », National Post, June 10th 2005, Quoted in T he Asia Case Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Ref 06/300C The McKinsey Quarterly, Strategy, Ã « How Chinese companies can succeed abroadÃ¢â¬ , May 2008. Lou, Y. and Rui, H. Ã¢â¬Å"An ambidexterity Perspective Toward Multinational Enterprises from Emerging EconomiesÃ¢â¬ , Academy of Management, November 2009. http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp? privcapId=1259829, Retrieved 2 March 2010. http://www. huawei. com/corporate_information/partnerships. do, Retrieved 2 March 2010. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Huawei http://eon. businesswire. com/portal/site/eon/permalink/? ndmViewId=news_view